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「万利国际注册网站」高考英语短文改错题解题指导

2020-01-11 13:28:08      访问量:4911

「万利国际注册网站」高考英语短文改错题解题指导

万利国际注册网站, 短文改错题是集多项语法规则和语言技能于一体的综合性试题。高考英语试题短文改错旨在考查考生发现、判断、纠正语篇中语言错误的能力,并兼顾考查考生在语篇中综合运用英语的能力。

短文改错题灵活性很大,覆盖面广,综合性强,测试层面多。它考查的目标涉及词法、句法、语篇结构和行文逻辑等。要想解决短文改错解题难的问题,认识短文改错的命题特点并掌握一定的解题技巧是非常重要的。

一、试题特点

1.材料来源于生活

短文改错的内容贴近考生的实际生活,谈论的都是与学生的学习和生活有关的话题,多以书信和日记的形式出现。

2.设错比较规律

改错类别分为错词、漏词、多词。以新课标全国卷为例,每篇短文改错均有十个错误,每句话中最多有两处。掌握这些规则对于我们解题有非常重要的指导作用。

3.错误类型多样

常见错误类型:动词形式(时态、语态、非谓语形式等);人称一致、代词一致、主谓一致;名词单复数、冠词、连词、介词、形容词、副词的误用;习惯搭配及从句的引导词等。

二、解题步骤

1.读懂全文,理解大意

通读短文,把握短文的题材、体裁,并理解短文的主旨大意。大概找出行文逻辑等大的方面的错误,同时也应注意对短文的长度和难度做出大概的推测,以把握答题时间。

2.细读句子,理解句意

读第二遍,细读各句,理解句意,在句子层次上进行题目分析,找出本句中与句意不符的地方或词汇、语法方面的错误,并作改正。短文改错是以句子为单位的,所以解题时,要上下兼顾,不可顾此失彼。可从以下几个方面着手检查错误:

1) 查主谓关系和前后人称关系是否一致;

2) 查时态是否一致,语态是否正确;

3) 查非谓语动词的形式是否正确;

4) 查介词、连词有无误用;

5) 查是否多词或少词;

6) 查形容词和副词是否误用,比较级、最高级形式是否正确;

7) 查冠词、代词是否误用;

8) 查习语、固定搭配、短语是否正确;

9) 查词类是否混用;

10) 查名词的单复数是否一致;

11) 查是否合乎逻辑等。

3. 复读全文,检查核对

最后再通读一次全文,把改正的词进行核对、调整。在复读检查过程中,既要看清词和句子,更要注意整体的逻辑关系,特别是上下文的联系;既要重视单词、短语、句子的字面意思,又要弄清文字的内在含义和句子间的逻辑关系及篇章结构的整体意义。

三、解题技巧

1. 动词:主要考查时态、语态、主谓一致和非谓语形式。如:

① 时态混用

then the trouble started. we can’t open the door. so we asked the policeman for help.

(很显然此段的主时态是一般过去时,因此应把can’t改为couldn’t。)

② 语态误用

all flights this morning have put off, because our air is covered with thick fog.

(flights和put off之间是逻辑上的被动关系,因此have后要加been。)

③ 主谓不一致

there were a football game on tv last saturday evening.

(a football game决定了谓语动词用单数,应把were改为was。)

④ 非谓语形式误用

tony had little money left, so he had to give up buy the computer.

(give up doing sth.是固定用法,因此应把动词buy改为buying。)

2. 名词:主要考查单复数混用。如:

susan is seventeen year old. she is very busy.

(表示“年龄多大了”应该为复数形式,故应把year改为years。)

3. 形容词/副词:主要考查两者之间的混用。如:

① 副词代替正确的形容词

during the football season, helen is much busier than usually.

(很明显是“与平时相比较更忙”,因此需要把usually改为usual。)

② 形容词代替正确的副词

as the clock showed one minute and forty-two seconds left in the game, she began cheering excited, “come on — get going!”

(显然应把excited改为excitedly,用来修饰动词cheer。)

4. 介词:主要考查固定搭配,特别是动词和介词的搭配。如:

① 介词遗漏

i’m sure you will get rid the sadness and unhappiness caused by the disaster.

(get rid of 是固定搭配,意为“摆脱,除去”,因此应在rid后加of。)

② 介词多余

my wife is also happy because of i have given up smoking.

(这里显然是考查because of与because的区别。前者不能接句子,而后者充当连词可以接句子,故应该把of去掉。)

③ 介词错用(一般为固定搭配)

manuel picked out his suitcase and went out.

(picked out改为picked up。pick out挑选;pick up拿起,捡起。)

5. 连词:主要考查句子之间的逻辑关系。常考的三种关系主要是:转折 (but)、并列(and)和因果(because,so等)。如:

one day, my wife and i went shopping at a store. we drove the car but we had a lot of things to buy.

(显然,题意为“我们开车去的原因是因为我们要买很多东西”,所以应该把but改为because / as / for。)

6. 关联词:主要考查that与what或which / how与what之间的转换。如:

i never have enough time for that i want to do.

(题意为“我从来没有足够多的时间来做自己想做的事情”,很明显应该把that改为what。)

7. 冠词:主要考查冠词是否多余或遗漏。如:

① 冠词多余

so i went to sell newspapers after the school.

(“放学后”应该用after school,故此处定冠词多余,应去掉the。)

② 冠词遗漏

as we all left home at early age, we met lots of problems in our daily life.

(at an early age表示“很小的时候”,故early前应加不定冠词an。)

8. 代词:主要考查代词是否多余或遗漏以及代词之间的混用。如:

① 代词多余

don’t lose your heart if you fail in the exam.

(lose heart意为“泄气,丧失勇气”,而lose one’s heart to sb. / sth.意为“爱上,喜欢上……”。根据语境可知,此处很明显是指“别泄气”,故应该把your去掉。)

② 代词遗漏

a teacher should make classes lively and interesting.

(应该在classes前加his,表示“使他的课堂生动有趣”。)

③ 代词混用

we were living in a big family. we treated each other as brothers and sisters. if any one of them had any difficulty, the other would help him or her out.

(根据题意“我们生活在一个大家庭之中,彼此间相处如同兄弟姐妹。如果我们之中谁有困难,其他人就会帮助他/她解决困难”,所以应把them改为us,把other改为others。)

短文改错题集多项语法规则和语言技能于一体,在100个词左右的短文中,错误可能出现在任何一处。做题时要切记细心准确,切忌画蛇添足,在本来没有错的地方随便改动。

▲巩固学习▲

a(2012年新课标全国卷)

i learned early in life that i had to be more patient and little aggressive. from the time i was about four until i was about six, i destroyed each of my toy. i was happy when the toys worked, but when things did wrong, i got angry and broke it. for a while parents bought me new toys. but before long they began to see which was happening. when i tear apart my fifth birthday toy train, my father said, “that’s it. no more toys to you.” my punishment lasted a year. meanwhile, i found out that with more patience i must make my toys to last. my attitude changed from then on.

b(2011年新课标全国卷)

my summer travel started terribly. i was at the shanghai railway station buy a ticket to hangzhou. i was going to visit a friend here and after that i would go to xiamen for long holiday. i bought my ticket but turned around to pick up my bag from the floor and then i realized that someone had stolen it. luckily i had all my money on my pocket, but the only clothes i had was those i had on. it felt very strange to travel without any luggages. when i finally arrived at my friend he lent to me lots of clothes. i feel very happy that i could change my clothes at last.

1. ... and little aggressive. little → less

2. ... each of my toy. toy → toys

3. ... when things did wrong ... did → went

4. ... and broke it. it → them

5. ... parents bought me ... parents前加my

6. ... see which was happening. which → what

7. when i tear apart ... tear → tore

8. no more toys to you. to → for

9. ... i must make ... must → could 或might

10. ... my toys to last. 去掉to

1. ... buy a ticket ... buy → buying

2. ... visit a friend here ... here → there

3. ... for long holiday. long前加a

4. ... but turned around ... but → and

5. ... on my pocket ... on → in

6. ... i had was those ... was → were

7. ... without any luggages. luggages → luggage

8. ... at my friend ... friend → friend’s

9. ... he lent to me ... 去掉to

10. i feel very happy ... feel → felt

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